Functions of nouns pdf

Sometimes called simply function. In English, grammatical function is primarily determined by a word's position in a sentence, not by inflection or word endings. Share Flipboard Email. Richard Nordquist. English and Rhetoric Professor. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks.

In addition, we distinguish predicator as the function carried by the main verb in a clause, and predicate as the function assigned to the portion of a clause excluding the subject.

A Summary of the 10 Functions of Nouns

Thus the functions of subject and direct object are often realized by a noun phrase, but can also be realized by a clause. Oxford University Press, While syntax is composed of structural units, for instance, constituents in traditional grammar, phrases in functional grammar and generative grammar, groups in systemic functional grammar or constructions in construction grammar, it is the linear ordering of the individual parts within a hierarchically structured sequence which constitutes their grammatical function.

The adverb reallyfor instance, realizes the grammatical function of a sentence adverbial with wide scope if positioned initially or finally, as is the case in the utterance really, Sarah is sweet. If the adverb really is positioned medially, it is assigned the grammatical function of the adverbial of subjunct with narrow scope, as in Sarah is really sweet. Or, the proper noun Mary can realize the grammatical function of object in Sally kissed Maryand it can realize the grammatical function of subject in Mary kissed Sally.

Thus, it is not the grammatical construction as such which is assigned a grammatical function. Rather, it is the positioning of a grammatical construction within a hierarchically structured sequence which assigns it a grammatical function. John Benjamins, Consider the example in 1. Tigers precedes the verb. It agrees with the verb in number, as becomes clear when it is made singular: The tiger hunts its prey at night.

In the active construction, it is never marked by any preposition. The corresponding full passive clause The phrase the book is also traditionally assumed to be the direct object in examples like 42 : 42 He gave a book to her.Teachers Pay Teachers is an online marketplace where teachers buy and sell original educational materials.

Are you getting the free resources, updates, and special offers we send out every week in our teacher newsletter? All Categories. Grade Level. Resource Type. Log In Join Us. View Wish List View Cart. Results for functions of nouns Sort by: Relevance. You Selected: Keyword functions of nouns. Grades PreK.

Other Not Grade Specific.

functions of nouns pdf

Higher Education. Adult Education. Digital Resources for Students Google Apps. Internet Activities. English Language Arts. Foreign Language. Social Studies - History. History World History. For All Subject Areas. See All Resource Types. Functions of Noun. English Language ArtsGrammarWriting. Study GuidesWorksheetsHandouts. Wish List. This bundle includes ready to print and use worksheets, warm-ups, reviews, and tests for all the ELA topics that are necessary for 7th and 8th Grade students.

All the wo.Here they are again—the 10 functions of nouns. Subjects of Sentences The professorJohn Smith, is the noun expert, so yesterday he gave the class his views on the importance of learning to write papers clearly, his students feverishly taking notes on all he said.

Direct Objects of Transitive Verbs The professor, John Smith, is the noun expert, so yesterday he gave the class his views on the importance of learning to write papers clearly, his students feverishly taking notes on all he said.

Objects of Verbal Phrases The professor, John Smith, is the noun expert, so yesterday he gave the class his views on the importance of learning to write papers clearly, his students feverishly taking notes on all he said.

functions of nouns pdf

Indirect Objects The professor, John Smith, is the noun expert, so yesterday he gave the class his views on the importance of learning to write papers clearly, his students feverishly taking notes on all he said. Objects of Prepositions The professor, John Smith, is the noun expert, so yesterday he gave the class his views on the importance of learning to write papers clearly, his students feverishly taking notes on all he said.

Noun Appositives The professor, John Smithis the noun expert, so yesterday he gave the class his views on the importance of learning to write papers clearly, his students feverishly taking notes on all he said.

Functions of Nouns

Noun Modifiers The professor, John Smith, is the noun expert, so yesterday he gave the class his views on the importance of learning to write papers clearly, his students feverishly taking notes on all he said. Noun Adverbs The professor, John Smith, is the noun expert, so yesterday he gave the class his views on the importance of learning to write papers clearly, his students feverishly taking notes on all he said.

Noun Absolutes The professor, John Smith, is the noun expert, so yesterday he gave the class his views on the importance of learning to write papers clearly, his students feverishly taking notes on all he said.

Those are the 10 biggies. You must know them cold. You must be able to take any sentence, identify all nouns in the sentence, and specify the function each noun serves.

As you can see, the noun does some heavy lifting in our language. In fact, when coupled with the verb, the noun reveals our main idea to our readers. But would it make much sense to use the noun to communicate verb-like information? Especially when we have the verb sitting there—ready, willing, and able to do the job? Hard Copy You may download our entire discussion of the Parts of Speech.

After all, most communication takes place in reports, emails, and instant messages. Rate this article: 3.

functions of nouns pdf

Have a discussion about this article with the community:. Powered by CITE. Check your text and writing for style, spelling and grammar problems everywhere on the web! Improve your grammar, vocabulary, and writing -- and it's FREE! Thanks for your vote! We truly appreciate your support.A noun can be defined as a word that is used to name a person, place, animal, or thing.

It can also name a state, an activity, an action, or a quality. The work that a noun performs in a sentence is referred to as its grammatical function. In this article, we are going to take a detailed look at the five grammatical functions of nouns. A noun will function as the subject of a verb when it is the subject of the sentence and comes before the main verb of the sentence. More often than not, the noun will begin the sentence. Example: Stacy killed a snake last night. All of the highlighted nouns in the sentences above are functioning as subjects to their respective verbs.

They function as subjects of verbs simply because they come before the main verbs in the sentences and are also the subjects in their respective sentences. A noun functions as an object of a verb when it comes after an action verb and receives the action of the verb. A noun functioning as an object of a verb in a sentence will always be the recipient of an action.

Example : Tom slapped Jerry. All of the highlighted words in the sentences above are nouns functioning as objects of verbs. They are functioning as objects of their respective verbs simply because they are the recipients of the actions of their verbs.

A noun will function as the complement of a verb when it comes after a linking verb or a state-of-being verb and receives no action from the verb. Some examples of linking verbs in the English language include the following: is, are, am, be, are, was, were, been, being, seem, taste, appoint, become, feel, smell, sound, appearetc. Example: John is a liar. All highlighted nouns in the sentences above are functioning as complements of their respective linking verbs.

When a noun functions as the object of a preposition, it comes after a preposition in a sentence. By definition, any noun that comes immediately after a preposition is the object of that preposition. Now that we have a good understanding as to what a noun functioning as the object of a preposition looks like, let us take a look at some more examples below.

From the examples above, you can see that each of the nouns highlighted come after prepositions thereby making them objects of their respective prepositions. This is the last but not least grammatical function of a noun. A noun can be in apposition to another noun. So each time you see a noun placed next to another noun and that noun is explaining the other noun, then you have a good example of a noun being in apposition to anther noun.

For example: The footballerSuarez has been suspended. So we can say the noun "Suarez" is in apposition to the noun "footballer".Nouns in English are traditionally described as naming "persons, places, things, and ideas. Noun phrases are formed by a noun or pronoun and any modifiers, complements, or determiners including adjectives, determiners, prepositional phrases, noun clauses, and verb phrases.

Nouns and noun phrases perform ten grammatical functions in the English language. The ten functions are:. The following sections discuss the ten functions and include examples to illustrate use. Nouns and noun phrases first function as the subject of clauses. A subject is a word, phrase, or clause which performs the action of or acts upon the verb.

functions of nouns pdf

Clauses contain both a subject and a predicate. The following italicized noun phrases are examples of subjects:. Although other grammatical forms can function as the subject of clauses, nouns and noun phrases most frequently perform the function. Nouns and noun phrases secondly function as subject complements. A subject complement is a word, phrase, or clause that follows a copular verb and describes the subject.

Copular verbs are also called linking and state-of-being verbs and include verbs like bebecomeand seem. The following italicized noun phrases are examples of subject complements:.

Nouns and noun phrases can also function as direct objects. A direct object is a word, phrase, or clause that follows a transitive verb and answers the question "who? The following italicized noun phrases are examples of direct objects:. Similarly to subject complements, nouns and noun phrases can function as object complements. An object complement is a word, phrase, or clause that directly follows and describes the direct object. The following italicized noun phrases are examples of object complements:.

Nouns and noun phrases can also function as indirect objects. An indirect object is a word, phrase, or clause that follows a ditransitive verb and answers the question "to or for whom? The following italicized noun phrases are examples of indirect objects:. Nouns and noun phrases function as prepositional complements.How do nouns function in English sentences? In this article I will explain and illustrate the 8 noun functions. Being able to use proper grammar is an important part of communicating clearly and effectively with your audience.

Every word in a sentence has a specific function and if you can recognize those functions, you will write and speak like a professional. Let me explain and illustrate the 8 noun functions in an English sentence. However, before I explain and illustrate the 8 noun functions, I need to review nouns and types of nouns. The boys played football in the park common noun. Dad drove the car into the shed concrete noun. Attitude plays an important role in sport abstract noun. A team of champions is not always a champion team collective noun.

The policeman directed the traffic away from the accident compound noun. In the third sentence, we ask: Rachel washed what? A noun that follows a linking verb in an English sentence may function as a predicate nominative.

A predicate nominative will always rename the subject of the sentence. In an English sentence, an appositive explains or enhances a noun or pronoun that comes just before it or a noun or pronoun that is near to it. A noun or pronoun in apposition to another noun or pronoun can replace the noun or pronoun. In the first sentence, David is in apposition to my friend. David explains my friend and David can take the place of my friend. David delivered the good news to the directors of the company.

Functions of Nouns

In the second sentence, my sister is in apposition to Robyn. My sister explains Robyn and can take the place of Robyn. My sister moved away from the family home to take up a new position in the company. In the third sentence, Australia is in apposition to my country. Australia explains my country and can take the place of my country. Australia is a wonderful place with many places to holiday.

In the fourth sentence, the minister is in apposition to Steven. The minister explains Steven and can take the place of Steven.

The minister led the funeral service with sensitivity and certainty. In an English sentence, the objective complement follows a direct object and renames the direct object. Remember the objective complement follows a direct object and names or renames the direct object. Remember a noun of direct address is normally someone or something which is directly spoken to and is usually set off by a comma or commas.

Here are a couple of sentences to test your ability to identify the 8 noun functions in an English sentence. English Grammar in Use by Raymond Murphy. Plain English Handbook by J.

Martyn Walsh and Anna Kathleen Walsh. Mastering English Grammar by S. Articles of Interest.So rather than wrestle with competing definitions, let's just briefly consider some of the conventional categories of nouns —or more precisely, some of the different ways of grouping nouns in terms of their often overlapping forms, functions, and meanings.

For additional examples and more detailed explanations of these slippery categories, consult the resources in the Glossary of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms, covering topics like the possessive case and pluralizing nouns. But this apparently simple distinction can get tricky.

Lobeck and Denham point out that "the classification of a noun can change depending on how that noun is used and what it's referring to in the real world. Either a singular or a plural pronoun can stand in for a collective noun, depending on whether the group is regarded as a single unit or as a collection of individuals.

Most proper nouns are singular, and—with a few exceptions iPad —they're usually written with initial capital letters. But don't count on consistency. Share Flipboard Email. Richard Nordquist. English and Rhetoric Professor. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks.

Updated April 20, In elementary school, I was taught that a noun is the name of a person, place, or thing. In college, I was taught the basic linguistic doctrine that a noun can only be defined in terms of grammatical behavior, conceptual definitions of grammatical classes being impossible.

Here, several decades later, I demonstrate the inexorable progress of grammatical theory by claiming that a noun is the name of a thing.

Advanced English Grammar: Noun Clauses

Oxford University Press,


comments

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *